Foundational Korean: Grammar Basics
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Adjectives, whether in verb form, predicate form, or describing nouns or sentences, all have the same function; they describe characteristics about something.
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Adverbs are words that describe the manner in which an action is being done, such as "quickly" or "slowly". In Korean, a common advervial marker is the suffix -게 (as in 빠르게) though there are common instances where different ones are used (related to language origin) such as 히 as in 안녕히 or words that simpl are adverbs in and of themselves (i.e., 빨리).
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An affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form. Affixes may be derivational, like English -ness and pre-, or inflectional, like the English plural -s and past tense -ed. They are bound morphemes by definition whereas prefixes and suffixes may be separable affixes
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An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination; one word can contain enough morphemes to convey the meaning of what would be a complex sentence in other languages. You wll commonly see words in Korean built of many morphemes with very specific meanings that otherwise need sentences in English to convey the same idea.
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Analytic and Isolating Languages
An isolating language is a type of language with a morpheme per word ratio close to one, and with no inflectional morphology whatsoever. An analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to using inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).